Development of the Concept of the Russian Orthodox Church Splitting and the Zemstvo in the Late XIX (S. M. Solovyov, A. P. Shchapov)
A. S. Madzharov
Two doctrines of Russian Orthodox Church splitting are compared they are the doctrines of the state school of thought represented by S. M. Solovyov and of the democratic movement represented by A. P. Shchapov. In Solovyov’s historical concept of schism is viewed as a prolonged phenomenon (rejecting reforms of Nikon and Peter I), but local and not affecting main development of Russia. For Solovyov the causes of the Old Believers’ rise were conservatism of the part of peasants underpinned by their mode of life and lack of religious education. Shchapov described the schism as anti-church and anti-state popular movement in the modern history of Russia having deep spiritual (specific worldview) and worldly (excessive exploitation) rationale – for the “true” church, just government, that was illustrative of, to put it in modern way, mentality of masses. Inside the state the schism was an alternative (authentic) trend of Russia history (a state within a state) – creative orderly mass movement – “the federation of the Old Believers communities” – to the future framed by a “new Russia peasants’ faith”.
Russian Orthodox Church splitting, state school of thought, democratic movement, historical concept, historical method, conservatism, liberalism, democratism, federalism, Nikon, Peter I, S. M. Solovyov, A. P. Shchapov, alternative (authentic) trend of Russia history, “new Russia peasants’ faith”, comparative historical method