Modern Science and Technology Research Policy in India
The article presents introduction into qualitative study of the state of the Indian scientific and technological sphere, of the policy in this area and its results from the position of system approach. Some indicators are compared with those in China and Pakistan – countries, the military-political confrontation with which has the most significant influence on the science policy of India. The state has been and still remains the main driving force for the Indian science. The main direction of science and technology policy were nuclear and missiles, because of the confrontation with the other forces, primarily regional ones. As this area is under the international control, obtaining a wide range of technologies was not possible. This predetermined self-reliance in research, and a long period of development of Indian research and development (R & D) in international isolation. Lack of resources, especially when these are taken from the civil economy to military purposes, required austerity and continued strong state control. In the course of time the main defense tasks were solved, but the back effect of science for the economy is still low. The situation changed in the 1990s with the beginning of a large-scale liberalization and this prospective growth may accelerate in the case of implementation a new science policy by the new political leadership of India.